- Group functions of a similar nature so they are visually connected via colors, lines, frames, or other shapes.
- Alternately, you can use a tangible connecting reference (line, arrow, etc) from one element to the next to also create a visual connection.
- Use uniform connectedness to show context or to emphasize the relationship between similar items.
The principles of grouping (or Gestalt laws of grouping) are a set of principles in psychology, first proposed by Gestalt psychologists to account for the observation that humans naturally perceive objects as organized patterns and objects, a principle known as Prägnanz. Gestalt psychologists argued that these principles exist because the mind has an innate disposition to perceive patterns in the stimulus based on certain rules. These principles are organized into five categories: Proximity, Similarity, Continuity, Closure, and Connectedness.
Elements tend to be perceived into groups if they are sharing an area with a clearly defined boundary.
Objects that are near, or proximate to each other, tend to be grouped together.
The time to acquire a target is a function of the distance to and size of the target.